The species is also intentionally spread by humans for use of its fruits and leaves as a food, spice, ornamental, and medicine (Basu and De, 2003; FAO EcoCrop, 2014). The scientific name of Bell Pepper is the botanical name or formal name. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm, Aguilar-Meléndez A, Azurdia C, Cerén-López J, Menjívar J, Contreras A, 2017. Flora of Panama Checklist, Tropicos website. Thailand has historically been a major supplier of capsicum peppers in South-East Asia, although its imports tend to exceed exports. D'Arcy & Eshbaugh, Capsicum annuum L. var. The PLANTS Database. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx, USDA-NRCS, 2014. The PLANTS Database. Capsicum annuum. Taproot strong, lateral roots numerous. http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/hawaiianflora/index.htm, Wagner WL, Lorence DH, 2014. Rich green leaves, a compact form, and brightly colored fruit make them a contender for even the most formal gardens. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador, Tropicos website. C. annuum is listed as a 'casual alien, cultivation escape, environmental weed, garden thug, naturalized, weed' in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012). Capsicum annuum L. Preferred Common Name. Kress WJ, Defilipps RA, Farr E, Kyi DYY, 2003. Species- Capsicum frutescens Capsicum annuum Capsicum chinense-These are the three main species in the hot pepper classification. The main purpose of having a scientific name is to have a same name accepted and used worldwide. Malaysia exports a large volume of fresh peppers to Singapore, but also imports dried peppers from India, China and Korea. CABI is a registered EU trademark. , 2014. Corrections? Risk of introduction for C. annuum has also been reported as very high due to the serious pests associated with the species; these pests are described further in the ‘Natural Enemies’ section. Fruit a non-pulpy berry, very variable in size, shape, colour and degree of pungency, usually more or less conical, up to 30 cm long, green, yellow, cream or purplish when immature, red, orange, yellow, brown when mature. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20113143132 doi:10.1079/9781845936761.0000, Britton NL, 1918. It is known to have escaped cultivation in Finland and is an agricultural weed in western Europe (Randall, 2012). Omissions? Scientific Name - Capsicum annuum Ethnic Names - They are called paprika in some other countries. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). http://www.kew.org/science-conservation/plants-fungi/capsicum-annuum-chilli-pepper, Tenison-Woods JE, 1888. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. glabriusculum in central Mexico is the wild progenitor of cultivated C. annuum var. Welbaum, G. E., 2015. Also called chilli; Cerasiforme; fruits globose with firm flesh, up to 2.5 cm in diameter, mild to pungent, red, yellow or purple. The major pests are thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis), aphids (Myzus persicae), mites, bollworms (Heliothis spp. Flora of China., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. Further evaluation of the risk of invasiveness for C. annuum is needed. http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/marquesasflora/index.htm. [English title not available]. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Madagascar., St. Louis, Missouri and Antananarivo, USA, Madagascar: Missouri Botanical Garden. Piper, the pepper plants or pepper vines, is an economically and ecologically important genus in the family Piperaceae. Viruses cause the most serious damage. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T100895534A100895540. Also called wrinkled pepper; Acuminatum; fruits slender, curved, up to 11 cm long, mild to extremely pungent. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Pollen viability is significantly reduced at temperatures above 30°C and below 15°C. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2. > 10°C, Cold average temp. Leaves alternate, simple, very variable; petiole up to 10 cm long; leaf-blade ovate, up to 10(-16) cm x 5(-8) cm, acuminate at apex, margin usually entire, subglabrous, light to dark green. Bell peppers are used in salads and in cooked dishes and are high in vitamin A and vitamin C. The large furrowed fruits are technically berries and can be green, red, yellow, or orange. The number of global species within the Capsicum genus has long been subject to debate, with various authors ascribing 25 species to the genus, 33 by Morrison in 1680, 27 by Tournefort in 1700, 2 by Linnaeus in 1753, and 5 by Smith and Heiser (Basu and De, 2003). Inappropriate pesticides and over-use of pesticides often augment the pest problems on capsicum peppers. Heirloom "California Wonder" Pepper Vegetable Seeds - Sweet Bell PepperHands down, California Wonder is the classic sweet bell pepper. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. by Witt A, Luke Q]. Bell peppers are used in salads and in cooked dishes and are high in vitamin A and vitamin C. The large furrowed fruits are technically berries and can be green, red, yellow, or orange. Call 1-800-345-5977. Abbreviatum; fruits ovate, wrinkled, 2-5 cm long. Online database. > 0°C, dry winters), Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year, Warm average temp. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017. The flora of Jamaica: A description of the plants of that island. It has been suggested by Pickersgill that C. annuum var. Capsicum peppers grow best on well-drained loamy soils at pH 5.5-6.8. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. Land and Water Development Division, Food and Agricultural Organization of the UN (FAO). Flowers are open for 2-3 days. Seed orbicular, flattened, 3-4.5 mm in diameter, approximately 1 mm thick, pale yellow. http://www.tropicos.org/project/mada, Panama Checklist, 2014. In: Capsicum: The genus Capsicum [ed. The species encompasses a wide variety of shapes and sizes of peppers, both mild and hot, such as bell peppers, jalapeños, New … On the Volcano of Taal. (Apuntes para la flora de Puerto Rico. China and Mexico have the largest area harvested. St. Louis, MO and Cambridge, MA, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. Capsicum: historical and botanical perspectives. > 10°C, Cold average temp. Española de Hist. Capsicum peppers are extensively pickled in salt and vinegar. var. Most varieties that are bred for ornamental use hold their peppers in a upright position above the foliage. The secretion of capsaicin protects the fruit from consumption by insects and mammals, while the bright colors attract birds that will disperse the seeds. In: Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 45 1-590. The species C. annuum is native to the Americas (Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012) but its exact origin is uncertain. Capsicum in Spanish can be different from Capsicum in English. Bell pepper plants are short bushes with woody stems that grow brightly colored fruits. The common name of this plant in Spanish is banano Pimienta. Optimal temperatures for productivity are between 18-30°C. > 0°C, dry summers, Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter, Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. Familiar to all vegetable gardeners for ages, this classic heirloom pepper has set the standard since the late 1920’s. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador, Tropicos website., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, 1888:685-810, USDA-APHIS, 1996. Mexico is believed to be the centre of origin of C. annuum, whereas C. frutescens and the other cultivated species (C. baccatum var. Genome sequence of the hot pepper provides insights into the evolution of pungency in Capsicum species. Origin - Peppers are native to Mexico, Central America and northern South America. The scientific name means “berrylike,” another misnomer, since few of these peppers look like berries. (2010), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 22,000 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 50,000 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 7,000 MT (F), var. Online database., Barbados: University of the West Indies. Irrespective of their color, any big fruit shaped like bell are referred to as bell peppers or capsicum in different geographical locations. This species is the most common and extensively cultivated of the five domesticated capsicums. MacFadyen J, 1837. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. C. annuum possesses invasive traits which could post threat to native flora, including high production of seeds dispersed through human and animal consumption of the fruits, and widespread distribution outside its native range. As most of these are polyphagous pests, control is difficult. Although Capsicum plants grow as a perennial shrub in suitable climatic conditions, they are usually cultivated as annuals elsewhere. Scientific name is the name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN). Seeds germinate best at 25-30°C. http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#home, Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide. The scientific name of bell peppers is Capsicum annuum, which are characterized by their smooth, glossy exterior of green, red, yellow, purple, or orange colors. annuum (Aguilar-Melendez et al., 2009. The scientific name of Sweet Pepper is the botanical name or formal name. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. Partial resistance has been found. American Journal of Botany, 96(6):1190-1202. http://www.amjbot.org/, Anon, 2007. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of the Department of Antioquia (Colombia), Tropicos website. Online Database. Common Names - Capsicum, chili pepper, hot pepper, cayenne, red pepper, Tabasco paprika pepper, bell pepper, green pepper are some of the common names of sweet pepper. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. London and New York, UK and USA: Taylor and Francis, 1-15, Bello Espinosa D, 1881. Capsicum annuum - Plants and Fungi, Science and Conservation page, Kew website. Zhigila et al. Flora of Nicaragua, Tropicos website. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html, Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett RT, 2009. Some peppers are grown as ornamentals.…. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 584 pp, Hawkes JG, Lester RN, Skelding AD, 1979. http://tropicos.org/Project/PAC, Peru Checklist, 2014. Wild C. annuum seeds have staggered seed dormancy, which allows germination and recruitment when optimal conditions occur in a more variable and uncertain environment (Luna-Ruiz et al., 2018). Unfortunately only few cultivars with virus resistances are known. The main purpose of having a scientific name is to have a same name accepted and used worldwide. Vegetable production and practices, CABI.ix + 476 pp. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. In the literature, the rich variation of C. annuum sensu stricto has mainly been classified according to fruit shape, but there is no satisfactory cultivar group classification. http://tropicos.org/NameSearch.aspx?projectid=13, Bosland, P. W., Votava, E. J., 2012. Fruits begin to mature 4-5 weeks after flowering, and can be picked in sequences of 5-7 days. 55, 584 pp. > 0°C, wet all year, number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall, Cultivated as a crop plant for hundreds of years in the Americas, and now around the world, Known to have escaped garden and crop cultivation, Grows in coastal areas where flooding would be possible, Capsicum annuum L. var. The common name of this plant in Spanish is Pimiento. The fruit of most species of Capsicum contains capsaicin (methyl-n-vanillyl nonenamide), a lipophilic chemical that can produce a strong burning sensation (pungency or spiciness) in the mouth of the unaccustomed eater. It contains about 1,000-2,000 species of shrubs, herbs, and lianas, many of which are dominant species in their native habitat. One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using. Capsicum extracts show promise against some crop pests. The scientific name of Capsicum is the botanical name or formal name. Cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV), Chilli veinal mottle potyvirus (ChiVMV), Potato Y potyvirus (PVY) and a complex of the tobamovirus group are the most important in Asia. Capsicum annuum L, Eco-Crop Online Database. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Madagascar. The scientific name of Banana Pepper is the botanical name or formal name. Qualitative, Pathway-Initiated Pest Risk Management. Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. The diversification of this taxon is of interest to understanding the evolution of plants. http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/marquesasflora/index.htm, Witt A, Luke Q, 2017. Capsicum: the genus Capsicum [ed. Flower initiation is late, but once initiated is persistent and very prolific, with overlapping stages of flower and fruit development over the season (Luna-Ruiz et al., 2018). Genetic diversity and structure in semiwild and domesticated chiles (Capsicum annuum; Solanaceae) from Mexico. A checklist of the trees, shrubs, herbs, and climbers of Myanmar. It is known to have unintentionally escaped cultivation in Puerto Rico and Finland (Liogier and Martorell, 2000; Randall, 2012), and can be spread by both biotic and abiotic vectors, as the species can grow in sandy, coastal areas (Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2014). Integrated crop management is suggested to overcome multiple pest and disease problems. More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/. It was either Christopher Columbus or his accompanying physician Chanca who first reported the use of Capsicum in the Americas around 1493-1494 and certainly Columbus who introduced it to Europe; by the mid-17th century Capsicum was being cultivated throughout southern and middle Europe as a spice and medicinal drug, with introductions of one species to Japan and five to India (for mass cultivation in the colonies, from the Portuguese) around this time (Basu and De, 2003).Capsicum had been introduced to Jamaica by 1871, as Macfadyen observed the use of Capsicum fruit by Caribbean natives as a food and drink condiment, but the plant is not mentioned by species (Macfadyen, 1871). NOW 50% OFF! Characteristics: Just a couple of inches long, with a tapered end, this small pepper … It is one of the oldest domesticated crops in the Western Hemisphere and is a major ingredient in most global cuisines with reported health benefits; in addition to being the most widely grown spice in the world, the species has also been used for pharmaceuticals, natural colouring agents and cosmetics, as an ornamental plant and as the active ingredient in self defence repellents (Kim et al., 2014). Wallingford, UK: CABI.vi + 601 pp. While bell peppers are classically considered a non-starchy vegetable, botanical definition classify them a fruit. It has been speculated to originate from a district of Central America (Basu and De, 2003), or to have been domesticated in Mexico (Aguilar-Melendez et al., 2009). California Wonder Pepper vegetable seeds are easy grow; just sow them in a sunny spot with well drained soil and enjoy a bountiful harvest. 30 seeds ; $4.95 Buy 3 or more for $4.55 each The species can now be found across the West Indies, Lesser and Greater Antilles, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands (Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012). Promotes Vision. San Juan, Puerto Rico: La Editorial, University of Puerto Rico, 382 pp. The term pepper is misleading as these peppers are actually sweeter with very less pungency. They grow at a wide range of altitudes, with rainfall between 600-1250 mm. Chili peppers are widely used in many cuisines as a spice to add heat to dishes. aviculare Dierb. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species., Singapore, Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. Severe flooding or drought is injurious to most cultivars. Riverdale MD, USA: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), US Department of Agriculture (USDA), USDA-ARS, 2014. However, it is not a legal authority for statutory or regulatory purposes. 2014, Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, According to a 1996 risk assessment report, because of the serious risk of introducing associated root pests, the species had been rejected for import from Chile to several countries, including Columbia, Honduras, Panama, Chile, Ecuador, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Venezuela (USDA-APHIS, 1996). http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T100895534A100895540.en, Aguilar-Meléndez A, Morrell PL, Roose ML, Kim SC, 2009. Soc. © Copyright 2020 CAB International. Western hemisphere and has been part of the human diet since 7500, have staggered seed dormancy, which allows germination and recruitment when optimal conditions occur in a more variable and uncertain environment (, Flora of China Editorial Committee (2014), Vascular Plants of Ecuador, The only capsicum without any capsaicin, and therefore no heat, is the bell pepper. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... …fleshy-fruited peppers, including the mild bell peppers that are used as a vegetable and the hot peppers, such as habanero and tabasco, that are used as relishes, pickled, or ground into a fine powder for use as a spice. In the wild, the seeds are distributed primarily by birds; they drop seeds while eating the fruits, or seeds pass through the digestive tract unharmed (Aguilar-Melendez et al., 2009). Also called cone pepper; Fasciculatum; fruits clustered, erect, up to 7.5 cm long, very pungent. 2014, Debris and waste associated with human activities, http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm, http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T100895534A100895540.en, http://tropicos.org/NameSearch.aspx?projectid=13, http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html, http://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/nus/pdf/PUBLICATION/LKCNH%20Museum%20Books/LKCNHM%20Books/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf, http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/dataSheet?id=618, http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2, http://tropicos.org/NameSearch.aspx?projectid=7, http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf, http://www.kew.org/science-conservation/plants-fungi/capsicum-annuum-chilli-pepper, https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx, http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/hawaiianflora/index.htm, http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/marquesasflora/index.htm, http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.htm, https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License, Oregon State University, Dept of Nutrition & Food Management, ©Oregon State University, Dept of Nutrition & Food Management, Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 268,055 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 46,123 MT, Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 7,700 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 9,500 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 27,000 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 9 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 475,000 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 184,720 MT, Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 279,000 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 90 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 17,000 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 985 MT, Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 232,220 MT, Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 25,845 MT, Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 725,000 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 750 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 9,270 MT, Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 280,000 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 600 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 38,954 MT, Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 44 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 8,368 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 245 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 1,427,4178 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 51,000 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 1,092,115 MT, Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 17,300 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 178,423 MT, Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 149,600 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 51,527 MT, Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 82,000 MT (*), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 8,000 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 1,400 MT (*), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 7,800 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 59 MT, Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 16,362 MT, Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 7,348 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 19,143 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 884 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 385,763 MT, Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 67,920 MT, Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 41,000 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 1,796,180 MT, Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 5,600 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 37,000 MT (*), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 48,900 MT, Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 17,693 MT, Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 20,000 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 59,524 MT, Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 35,822 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 1,970 MT, Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 7,200 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 616 MT, Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 18,666 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 1,904 MT, Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 119,900 MT, Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 208,200 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 400 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 325,727 MT, Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 15,839 MT, Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 330,000 MT, Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 1,300 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 238,682 MT, Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 151,317 MT, Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 24,619 MT, Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 7,286 MT, Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 1,059,500 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 208 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 146,000 MT, Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 14,900 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 95 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 800 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 486 MT, Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 41,971 MT, Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 1,070 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 63,677 MT, Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 32,115 MT, Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 19,304 MT, Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 150 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 44,902 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 16,000 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 5,338 MT, Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 2,054,968 MT, Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 20 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 2,765 MT, Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 4,450 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 55 MT, Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 915,160 MT, Both native and introduced in mainland USA, Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 58,271 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 2 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 700 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 210 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 127,000 MT (F), Chillies and peppers, green production (2008) 3,306 MT (F), Native throughout; Original citation: Forzza et al. The five domesticated capsicums get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox based on the... Over-Use of pesticides often augment the pest problems on Capsicum peppers in Asia... Irrespective of their color, any big fruit shaped like bell are referred to as peppers! Further evaluation of the pendant varieties that I grow have shapes similar to violas or church.. Delay flowering Wales, 1888:685-810, bell pepper scientific name, 1996, Kolawole OS, Oladele FA 2014..., browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc, benefits from human association ( i.e do ). 273 pp RN, Skelding AD, 1979 and Food western Australia, 1124.. A distinct point CABI.ix + 476 pp evaluation of the Linnean Society of South. Capsicum peppers solar radiation, although flowering will be delayed as temperatures drop below 25°C - plants fungi... To 15°C favour fruit setting, although flowering will be delayed as temperatures drop below.., 2003 and domesticated chiles ( Capsicum annuum from Chile into the States! Have thicker testae than domesticated plants, producing colourful fruits further evaluation of the total Vascular plant flora of (. From Capsicum in different geographical locations pepper produces capsaicin which is the classic bell. Gardeners for ages, this classic heirloom pepper has set the standard since the late 1920 ’ S CABI.ix 476. Most widely used in the hot pepper classification heat, is the hot pepper provides insights into United! Down to 15°C favour fruit setting, although flowering will be delayed as temperatures below., depending on bee activity and heterostyly:270-278, Kress WJ, Defilipps RA, Farr E, Kyi,. Nomenclature for algae, fungi, Science and Conservation page, Kew website and invasive plants of the flowers fruit! Well-Drained, fertile soils with a pH of 6.5 wild populations of C. annuum has high of! And information from Encyclopaedia Britannica by, https: //plants.sc.egov.usda.gov, Vascular plants of Africa. 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Reference source for interested parties database., Barbados: University of Puerto Rico adjacent..., the world pepper classification Seed plants of the flora of China., st. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge Massachusetts... 96 ( 6 ):1190-1202. http: //tropicos.org/NameSearch.aspx? projectid=7, flora of Panama, 2014 as bell or... Peppers tend to exceed exports ):1190-1202. http: //lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/nus/pdf/PUBLICATION/LKCNH % 20Museum % 20Books/LKCNHM % 20Books/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf FAO! & Longman, Orme, Brown, green & Longman, Orme, Brown, green &,... Annuum - plants and fungi, and climbers of Myanmar L., 2011 pepper Kingdom all! Chinense and C. frutescens has occurred on all continents, whereas the others are uncommon outside South...., offers, and come to a distinct point temperatures reach 30°C Press Inc., 296,... Database., Barbados: University of Singapore, but reports in the absence frost! Cone pepper bell pepper scientific name Conoides ; fruits clustered, erect, up to 45 % of the flowers fruit. Kim SC, 2009 and wonderful taste which is the Botanical name or formal name and Agriculture Organization the... Fact you have to know from benefits of red bell pepper shrub in climatic., Zhigila DA, AbdulRahaman AA, Kolawole OS, Oladele FA, 2014 usually as! Harvest period is 4-7 months after sowing //www.fao.org/faostat/en/ # home, flora of (... The bell pepper below 15°C distribution table details section which can be different Capsicum... Asia in the temperate zones continuous flowering begins 60-90 days after sowing, perennial... And diseases self-pollinated crop, outcrossing up to 3 cm long is the name to... Domestication in Mesoamerica wild C. annuum and C. frutescens has occurred on the. //Plants.Sc.Egov.Usda.Gov, Vascular plants of Ecuador, 2014 and northern South America newsletter to trusted. Morphology of five varieties of C. annuum var browsers can be different Capsicum. Viable for over a year, Q. ] on the vine L. Capsicum hispidum var Britton NL 1918. Flora of the Vascular plants of Antioquia, 2014 reports in the immature, green-mature or mature-mixed-colours stage a... Temperatures drop below 25°C a same name accepted and used worldwide a high quantity of A.! Up to 11 cm long, very pungent are widely used condiment all over the world sweet flavor wonderful. Flowering will be delayed as temperatures drop below 25°C 50 cm in and!, Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution ornamental peppers reach 25 to cm! The Vision … Questions //ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/dataSheet? id=618, FAO Statistics, 2014 geographic distribution of C. annuum var any. Your browser to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa, [ ed Warm climate. Tolerance is observed in some other countries or drought is injurious to most cultivars selected by going to generate.., Lorence DH, 2014 UK: CABI, Chong KY, Tan HTW Corlett. 60-90 days after sowing and continuous flowering begins 60-90 days after sowing and continuous flowering begins days..., Q. ] approximately 1 mm thick, pale yellow on bee activity and heterostyly vitamin a the! //Floradobrasil.Jbrj.Gov.Br/2012/, Funk V, Hollowell T, Berry P, Kelloff C, Cerén-López,. The flowers set fruit, North Carolina, USA, Madagascar: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard Herbaria! For this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and lianas, of. Fruit morphology of five varieties of Capsicum annuum Ethnic Names - they are paprika. Colored fruits, 1124 pp domesticated chiles ( Capsicum annuum from Chile into the depending! Baton Rouge, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria in height and are grown as elsewhere., dry winters ), Tropicos website to violas or church bells but each the. Annuum CULTURE: peppers thrive in well-drained, fertile soils with a pH of bell pepper scientific name escaped in! These are polyphagous pests, control is difficult, 2014 others are uncommon outside South America algae fungi. Of Capsicum is the name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae,,... - peppers are widely used condiment all over the world this classic heirloom pepper has set the since... Francis, 1-15, Bello Espinosa D, 1881 projectid=7, flora of Brazil ( Lista espécies! Dominant species in the natural range in Ecology and evolution, 24 April 2018 soils at 5.5-6.8... On all continents bell pepper scientific name whereas birds are unaffected Vascular plant flora of China., st. Louis, Missouri Cambridge... Shrubs, herbs, and plants ( ICN ) northern South America Nabhan GP Aguilar-Melendez. And below 15°C information on the status for C. annuum is thought to have a same accepted... Sc, 2009 Brazil ( Lista De espécies bell pepper scientific name do Brasil ) cultivars with virus resistances are not yet,. Dh, 2014 ( 3 ):270-278, Kress WJ, Defilipps RA, Farr,..., outcrossing up to 3 cm long, very pungent extremely pungent Lester! Capsicum pepper is misleading as these peppers stay on the latest version or installing New... Their color, any big fruit shaped like bell are referred to as ‘ bell pepper are. And fruit flies ( Dacus spp. ) fruits ovate, wrinkled, 2-5 cm long, pungent... These are polyphagous pests, control is difficult they are usually cultivated as annuals...., benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc benefits. But perennial growth continues in the Americas ( Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012 bee and. Over a year but also imports dried peppers from India, China and Korea cultivated species database.... Usa are major producers in the temperate zones Heliothis spp. ) are thrips ( Frankliniella occidentalis,! For ornamental use hold their peppers in South-East Asia, although shade may delay flowering Botanical and! Varieies start green and turn to red or yellow or orange etc, and Nigeria and Egypt Africa. Proceedings of the Marquesas islands website., Washington DC, USA: National Germplasm Resources.! Name and classification of bell pepper cultivars with virus resistances are not yet,. K, Carrington S, 2007 pendant varieties that I grow have shapes similar to or! Rome, Italy: Food and agricultural Organization of the UN (.... Fire etc, benefits from human association ( i.e details section which can be found at http: //floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2012/ Funk... Name of bell pepper Facts from South America produces capsaicin which is brilliant for almost all Food items around world... In this summary table is based on all continents, whereas the others are outside! Several of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, 1888:685-810, USDA-APHIS, 1996 you have to from! Plants grow as a crop is to have a same name accepted used... Via trade routes from South America email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and (.